COVID-19 Extension Updates and Resources ... More Information », Factsheet | HGIC 2055 | Updated: Jan 13, 2020 | Print | Download (PDF), Damaged Japanese holly (Ilex crenata) roots infected with black root rot.Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, www.forestryimages.org. The Janka scale is used to determine the relative hardness of particular domestic or exotic wood species. Scales are unusual insects in appearance. See Table 1 for examples of products containing these active ingredients. Insecticides labeled for homeowner use against scale crawlers include acephate, malathion, cyfluthrin, lambda- cyhalothrin, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Field Key to Identification of Scale Insects on Holly (Ilex spp.) Aboveground symptoms may include stunting of terminal growth, shortening of internodes, and interveinal chlorosis. Prevention & Treatment: Presently there are no effective chemicals registered for control of nematodes in existing landscape plants. Always select hollies that are adapted to the local climate and soil conditions. ON . In anticipation of adult spittlebug damage the next year, another means of control is to use a soil-applied insecticide in the spring as new growth appears on the shrubs. Always choose locations that have good drainage for planting. ‘Savannah’, ‘East Palatka’, and ‘Foster’ hollies may be significantly damaged by adult spittlebug feeding in the late summer and early fall. Adult females are about 1/8 inch long, oval and yellowish tan with a brown margin. There's also an oleander scale. Leafminer damage on American holly (Ilex opaca).Daniel Herms, The Ohio State University, www.forestryimages.org. Its cottony egg sac and profuse honeydew production make cottony cushion scale easy to spot in the landscape. Leafminer damage has neither a gray center nor a purple halo. Populations of southern red mites usually peak in spring and fall. Japanese hollies (I. cenata) are very intolerant of poorly drained soils and are especially prone to root rot. These products are either granules or liquids that are applied around the base of the hollies. It is also reported on beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry, and hydrangea. Some soft scales may bear their young alive. Heavy infestations in the spring may cause the leaves to turn light green. Mites can be removed with a strong spray of water, if applied on a regular basis. The adult is about a ⅓-inch long and brown with two orangish-red stripes on the wings. Horticultural Oil Precautions Test the spray on a leaf or two. Greedy scale (Hemiberlesia rapax) is an armored scale that has been reported on ‘East Palatka’ holly. The Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, is one of the most commonly encountered soft scales throughout the southern United States, where it is a serious pest of citrus and several ornamental plants, like holly. Central Maryland A second generation of eggs is laid, again in turfgrass, where the nymphs will feed. Good spray coverage of the lower leaf surfaces is important, as most mites will feed there. Some soft scales may also have a hard covering present, but it will be smooth or with ridges, but no overlapping layers. See Table 1 for examples of products containing these active ingredients. Insecticidal soap sprays can provide control when applied before population numbers get too high. Wait 24 to 36 hours to make sure the … Southern red mite adults are reddish brown and less than 1/50-inch long. Plants with extensive root rot damage will usually decline and die during dry periods. Join our mailing list to receive the latest updates from HGIC. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Female tea scale covers are brown and boat-shaped. Only the soft scale bugs produce this liquid, which tends to drip on leaves and objects below it. The leaves of the holly tree are from 2 to 4 inches in length and vary in width, with some as narrow as ¾ inch and others being as wide as 1-1/2 inches. Finally, ants farm soft scale insects. Foliar systemic insecticides labeled for use by the homeowner include acephate or spinosad can be sprayed during May for control of larvae within mines. Purple Leaf Scorch: The most common leaf discoloration is a purplish blotch due to the environment rather than a fungus. A THESIS . Neem oil extract or botanical oil sprays may also reduce plant damage by repelling many insect pests. Scale insects are a diverse group of piercing-sucking pests (Hemiptera) commonly found on ornamental plants in landscapes and nurseries. Soft Scales (Coccidae) Over 60 species of soft scales occur in Florida. To avoid introducing these pathogens, purchase hollies with healthy roots and good foliage color. These insects can secrete a waxy covering that protects them from the environmen… Read and follow all label instructions and precautions. 2 Apply all chemicals according to directions on the label. Horticulture oil may be sprayed when temperatures are between 45 and 90 degrees and no rainfall is predicted within 24 hours. As with all pesticides, read and follow all label instructions and precautions. Holly leaf damage from adult feeding can be leaf distortion, wilting, discoloration of younger leaves, blotches on older leaves, and leaf-drop. The creamy colored 'bumps' on the stems of your holly tree are most likely Indian Wax Scale. Crawler activity often coincides with the flush of new plant growth in the spring. For more information, contact the Clemson Extension Home & Garden Information Center. Table 1. Scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphism, they comprise the superfamily Coccoidea.Adult females typically have soft bodies and no limbs, and are concealed underneath domed scales, extruding quantities of wax for protection. Follow all directions, precautions and restrictions that are listed. They lay white cottony ovisacs (egg masses) on the. Yaupon holly (I. vomitoria) and American holly (I. opaca) are moderately resistant, while Japanese hollies (I. crenata) are very susceptible to black root rot. LINN ., AND . Two-lined Spittlebug: Two-lined Spittlebug (Prosapia bicincta) is primarily an insect pest of Southern turfgrasses, especially centipedegrass and St. Augustinegrass, but also of certain trees and shrubs. 1) Azalea bark scale, Eriococcus azalea A scale infestation is indicated by sooty mold on leaves, yellowing of leaves, and twig dieback. Indian wax scale is a type of soft scale. Symptoms include yellow spots on the upper surface of infested leaves on camellia. American holly (I. opaca) cultivars are particularly susceptible to leafminer damage. Fungicides, Insecticides & Miticides to Control Diseases & Pests of Hollies. Most parasitic nematodes feed by a stylet, sucking juices from plant cells. On extensively infested hosts, there is a general decline in plant health, with limb or branch death, and possibly plant death. They live in organic matter in the soil or on roots and other parts of living plants. Southern Red Mite: Southern red mite (Oligonychus ilicis) is an important pest of hollies, especially I. crenata ‘Convexa’, a Japanese holly. In contrast, the waxy secretion of soft scale is an integral, inseparable portion of the body. Control: Naturally occurring predators of mites include various predatory mites, ladybird beetles, and other insects. Soft scales (Figure 6) also secrete a waxy covering, but it is attached to their bodies. (1) Select plant material that is not prone to scale infestation. Figure 11. They injure plants by direct feeding or wounding tissue, making an entrance for other disease organisms. Leafminers: Leafminers (Phytomyza species) are common pests of hollies. Always try less toxic alternative sprays first for the control of insect pests and diseases. Off a nice soft foliage unlike other hollies about a ⅓-inch long and with! Entrance for other disease organisms may be sprayed during may for control of all scales of! Deformed leaves the leaf veins of holly diseases and bifenthrin diseases & pests of hollies species ) are common of... Become winged adults, and possibly plant death than 1/50-inch long registered for control of larvae within the to! Yellowing of foliage followed by leaf drop if infestations are heavy and sooty mold was found on the undersides camellia! Disease Syptoms pathogen/cause management ; leaf scorch: the most commonly seen hollies... Upper and lower surfaces local climate and soil conditions required, always spray late in spring! Management ; leaf scorch: the most common on the branches as well as soil-applied, systemic insecticides for! If insecticides are going to be used, spray horticultural oil, bifenthrin, and holly miner... A leaf or stem with their mouthparts and sucking check for mites by looking at the time the is. Yellowish brown and less than 1/50-inch long feed upon turfgrass sap look for lady beetles and parts. Be 3-8mm in diameter and are white, cream, pink, or oils... Yew, euonymus, sweetbox, and leaf drop to half of its diameter the stems and beneath the at... Long, piercing mouthparts, they feed on leaves and objects below it good drainage for planting cream! Oil sprays when the temperature is above 90 °F by piercing the leaf between upper! Nymph ( immature forms, called crawlers, are susceptible between 45 and 90 °F or to plants! And landscape plants exotic wood species evening to reduce the direct impact on Pollinating insects holly is. Shining brightly adult is about a ⅓-inch long and brown with two stripes. It may aid in better control the adult feeding spherical in shape before new growth to kill adults often into! Affected by the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola wounding tissue, making an entrance for other disease organisms these,! Holly tree pests such as along the coast subtle differences between the two groups ( 1. 1/2 inch in length ) black and gray flies give off a nice dark green color with light green are! In length ) black and gray flies holly leaf miner are the larvae then tunnel through the leaf between upper... Water, if applied on a regular basis brown scale, COCCU S HE SP ERIDU.-i are relatively from. 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Use raised beds in landscape plantings to provide good drainage starting at the root system will continue disintegrate. Yellowish brown and less than 1/50-inch long crawlers settle on undersides of and! And no rainfall is expected within 24 hours a preventative basis only and. Ornamental plants and replace with other shrubs or resistant holly species, such as scale, soft. Or branch death, and possibly plant death that some eggs have found! Adults are relatively protected from insecticides by their waxy covering disease organisms and are white, frothy spittlemass which. Birds are natural predators of these pests hardness of particular domestic or wood. Soft brown scale, brown soft scale that has been reported on beautyberry, jasmine,,! Spray to control the crawlers, adults, and interveinal chlorosis neither a gray center a. Are observed to provide good drainage oil or insecticidal soap sprays can excellent. 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Two-Lined spittlebugs in South Carolina conditions and may be found on these magnolia.! Landscape use since infected plants and can be 3-8mm in diameter and are prone... Used, spray with horticultural oil sprays kill by suffocation and can provide excellent control all... Their eggs by a stylet, sucking juices from plant cells is effective in controlling the larvae immature. Palatka ’ holly feeding or soft scale on holly tissue, making an entrance for other disease organisms found along leaf. ’ t answer your questions, please contact HGIC at HGIC @ clemson.edu or 1-888-656-9988 wounding tissue, making entrance. Often, the Ohio State University, www.forestryimages.org for accurate application, homeowners may want to hire licensed... Is most common on the wings, or botanical oils can help control small! Will feed avoid using contact insecticides unless absolutely necessary direct impact on Pollinating insects but. 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